Middle East

Fear of revenge prevents flood of Syrian defections

Governor of al-Qunatara city and former agriculture minister Riyad Hijab is seen in al-Qunatara in this February 15, 2011 file photograph. (REUTERS/Khaled al-Hariri/Files)

ALEPPO, Syria: Fearful of deadly retribution for his defection to Jordan, Syrian Prime Minister Riad Hijab sought help from rebels to spirit dozens of family members out of the country and beyond the reach of President Bashar Assad’s forces.

The scale of the operation needed to smuggle Hijab and his relatives across the border to Jordan – his family and those of seven brothers and two sisters were all moved to safety – speaks volumes of the difficulties facing potential defectors.

“Today I tell you there are 10 families, praise be to God, all of them are well, who have reached safety in a secure area and who are now in excellent health,” Hijab’s spokesman, Mohammad Atari, said in a broadcast on Al-Jazeera television from Jordan.

“They and their children have reached a secure place,” he said, giving no further details of how they escaped.

Others who have fled so far include soldiers, diplomats and politicians, but the fear of revenge against relatives left behind in Syria has prevented the stream of defections turning into a flood, defectors say.

Lieutenant General Abu Furat al-Garabolsi, an army tank brigade commander, faced the same dilemma as all would-be defectors when he planned his desertion. If he left without his family, he would be abandoning them to almost certain death. But if his family made unusual trips that would attract suspicion.

“If they found out that an army soldier was sending his wife or children abroad, they knew it meant he was planning to defect,” the 42-year-old told Reuters in Aleppo, where he now leads a group of fighters in the Saleheddine district.

“The punishment for that was going to be the execution of my family and anyone related to me.”

Two months ago, taking advantage of the school summer holidays, he sent his family away. “The day I decided to defect, I was ordered to carry out a tank operation against the [rebel] Free Syrians,” he said. “I just couldn’t do it, so I escaped.”

Even though his family were safe, he still paid a price. His former driver in the military called him a few days ago to say that his home in Qardaha, where he served, had been burned to the ground as punishment for his defection.

“The house is replaceable, but my heart is broken over the photographs of my girls,” he said. “Every two months I would take them to get photographed and I’d display their photos around the house. Now I will never have those memories back.”

Hosam Hafez, a Syrian diplomat who defected last month from a diplomatic mission in Armenia, said brutal treatment of defectors’ families was a deterrent from early in the uprising.

“They killed most of the family of Hussein Harmoush, the first officer to defect. Dozens of people were killed,” he said.

Since Harmoush defected a year ago, rebels say thousands of soldiers have joined their ranks, including more than 20 generals. But high level civilian defections have been rare.

Hafez said six or seven Syrian diplomats had defected so far despite Foreign Ministry efforts to restrict their movement, while others are still waiting to seize their chance.

“The policy of our ministry was to recall a big number of diplomats back to Syria,” he said.

“Usually we have 350 to 400 diplomats outside, now I guess we have much less than half this number in the missions outside.”

Hafez, stationed in London when the uprising against Assad began in March last year, said he received threats from Assad supporters when he expressed concern about the crackdown on protests. He was transferred to Armenia until, around 10 days ago, he was able to flee.

“It was not easy at all,” he said, without giving details.

For Hijab, surrounded by security, the operation would have been far more difficult.

Atari said that after the Damascus bombing which killed four of Assad’s top security officials three weeks ago, dozens of soldiers were assigned to watch the prime minister.

“Riad was in a mosque and after the Friday prayers a colonel came to him, with 45 members of the Republican Guard, and he said, ‘We are here to protect you’” Atari said, adding that plans for his defection had been hatched two months ago.

Ahmad Ramadan, an executive member of the opposition Syrian National Council, said the SNC was in contact with more potential defectors.

“We’re organizing measures for them,” he told Reuters, adding that a special team was working on ensuring their safety. “I have in front of me now a list of 15 political and diplomatic officials who have demanded to defect from the regime,” he said.

Key Syrian defectors

Key defections from the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad since the start of the uprising in March last year:

- April 2011: Two MPs representing the city of Deraa, the cradle of the uprising, resign over the repression there.

- 30 July: Colonel Riad al-Asaad, an army officer, says he has defected and gone to neighboring Turkey to form the Free Syrian Army. Since then many other soldiers have left to join the FSA. They include 31 generals, many of whom are reported to have returned to Syria to join the battle against Assad’s regime.

- January 2012: Member of parliament Imad Ghalioun announces in Egypt that he has resigned to oppose the regime.

- March 8: In a video published on the Internet, Abdo Hussameddin, Assad’s deputy oil minister, says he is defecting and joining the rebellion.

- June 22: A fighter pilot defects with his aircraft to Jordan, where he asks for and receives political asylum.

- July 6: General Manaf Tlass reported to have defected. The highest-ranking figure to abandon Assad to date, Tlass later surfaces in Paris, calls for an end to attacks on civilians.

- July 11: Syria’s ambassador to Iraq, Nawaf Fares, becomes the first senior diplomat to defect. He takes refuge in Qatar.

- July 24: Lamia Hariri, charge d’affaires in Cyprus, and her husband Abdul-Latif al-Dabbagh, ambassador to the United Arab Emirates, say they are defecting. The regime confirms the report two days later.

- July 25: Mohammad Tahsin al-Fakir, a security attache at the Syrian Embassy in Oman, defects.

- July 30: Syria’s top diplomat in London, Charge d’Affaires Khaled al-Ayoubi, resigns in protest against the “violent and oppressive” acts of the regime.

- Aug. 5: Three intelligence officers defect and seek refuge in neighboring Jordan. General Mohammad Ahmad Faris, a military aviator who became the first Syrian in space, flees to Turkey.

- Aug. 6: Prime Minister Riad Hijab defects to the opposition, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights says, as state media reports his abrupt sacking two months after his appointment. - AFP


A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on August 07, 2012, on page 8.




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